Sensor Technology Ltd
11 January 2017
The new ORT 230/240 devices replace Sensor Technology’s E200 ORT series, benefiting from all-new electronics that deliver significant gains in resolution, frequency response, reduced sensor current consumption and faster digital data throughput.
The high speed capability comes from an inherently low inertia, since the electronics are not fixed to the shaft, while non-contact operation ensures a long and reliable life (backed up by Sensor Technology’s lifetime warranty) with high accuracy. The optical operating principle also ensures excellent noise immunity.
TorqSense ORT 230 series sensors provide fixed voltage or current analogue outputs – one for torque and one for either speed or power. The TorqSense ORT 240 provides two user selectable voltage or current analogue outputs – one for torque and the other for either speed, power or peak torque – plus digital outputs including RS232, CANbus and USB for interfacing with modern instrumentation and laptops. The ORT 240 enables users to connect up to 10 transducers via USB, and transducer configuration software for making changes to transducer variables.
Features of both devices include self-diagnostics to report if the transducer’s torque, speed ratings or calibration date have been exceeded, while inbuilt sensors monitor shaft temperature for better compensation and accuracy. The device also offers a simple ‘sensor status’ output.
Complementing these products is Sensor Technology’s TorqView software, providing an easy-to-use advanced torque monitoring package for Windows PCs to assist with data display and recording. It offers real time chart plotting, and is compatible with both Matlab and Excel. Further, LabVIEW VIs are available for users to design their own process control applications, and DLLs are available for users who wish to write their own custom software.
These latest optical rotary torque sensors are an important extension to the Sensor Technology torque monitoring range, and offer an alternative solution when low torque or bandwidth requirements preclude the use of the more cost-efficient SAW-based TorqSense products.
Optical rotary torque sensors use a pair of gratings attached a short distance apart on a strain-sensitive shaft to modulate a light source. As torque is applied to the shaft, a slight twist results which changes the alignment of the gratings and thus varies the light transmitted through to a detector. The use of this technique results in a transducer which is able to detect torque bi-directionally, and which has a fast mechanical and electrical response, low inertia and complete freedom from brushes or complex electronics.
The absence of brush gear allows high-speed operation with a continuous rating up to 30,000rpm standard. Further increases in rpm are available depending upon shaft size. The torque shaft is of low compliance ½° maximum torsion deflection on the smaller transducers and ¼° maximum on the larger transducers at full-scale deflection. Any full scale torque can be specified within the range 10mNm to 100Nm.
19 November 2016
Coal is an important global resource and likely to remain so for many years to come. It is a crucial element in the energy mix and vital in the manufacture of a great many other products. But now more than ever, the pressure is on to reduce transportation costs by improving the efficiency of coal handling operations.
Coal represents a significant proportion of all dry bulk, and handling and transportation of this challenging material is a major consideration. It is particularly important to make sure that handling equipment is reliable in the long term because breakdowns can lead to considerable downtime, reductions in efficiency and unforeseen costs.
Coal conveyors are heavy-duty electro-mechanical systems that start and stop under heavy load. Unsurprisingly, they are prone to ingress from harsh coal dust and related debris, and their working conditions can be far from ideal as well with dramatic swings in temperature plus driving rain, sleet and snow, ice build-up etc.
In an industry where downtime due to mechanical failure is often viewed as an unavoidable fact of life, British company Sensor Technology of Banbury is developing technologies that can help operators to boost long-term reliability, increase availability, and reduce unscheduled maintenance. This can be vital for the coal handling sector as it looks to drive down costs, boost uptime and optimise efficiency.
Sensor Technology’s offering to the coal handling and transportation industry is built around its non-contact digital torque monitoring technology. Applied to the control systems for conveyors, it can transform these processes into accurately monitored and optimally managed systems.
Accurate monitoring of torque is a key indicator of impending mechanical problems. The data can also be used to ensure conveyors are being run at optimum speeds, and that mechanical shocks are being minimised. This is because torque data is directly related to the power from the drive shaft. As coal is added and the conveyor load increases, so more power is needed. Similarly, if the conveyor is run at a higher speed, more power is needed. Controlling conveyor speed accurately helps to minimise shock loads, and so leads to both increased reliability and increased efficiency.
Traditionally torque data has been hard to collect, with wired technologies vulnerable to the challenging environmental conditions inherent in coal handling operations, while also being expensive and difficult to set up. Wireless technology presents an important alternative that is being recognised as a real enabler for monitoring torque in even the most demanding applications.
With over 20 years of research and development into digital torque monitoring, Sensor Technology is at the forefront of this technology and is an acknowledged leader in the manufacture of wireless load sensors. It has a global network of distributors assisting sales, and a network of world-renowned technical experts assisting in the development of technology.
The company’s TorqSense transducer is based on the patented technology of measuring the resonant frequency change of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. TorqSense torque sensors use two tiny SAW devices or SAWs made of ceramic piezoelectric material containing frequency resonating combs. These are glued onto the drive shaft at 90 degrees to one another. As the torque increases the combs expand or contract proportionally to the torque being applied. In effect the combs act similarly to strain gauges but measure changes in resonant frequency.
The adjacent RF (radio frequency) device transmits radio waves towards the SAWs, which are then reflected back and picked up by the device. The change in frequency of the reflected waves identifies the current torque. This arrangement means there is no need to supply power to the SAWs, so the sensor is non-contact and wireless.
This innovative method of measuring torque can bring distinct advantages to coal conveying, whether in extracting coal from the mine, or transporting it for processing, or as part of subsequent shipping operations. A process that was once regarded as very difficult to monitor can now reap the same benefits as many other industrial processes.
TorqSense technology can also improve on the torque limiters that are traditionally relied on to prevent mechanical damage in the event of a coal conveyor jam. Continually monitoring the torque, the transducer can identify the gradual increases that are indicative of an impending jam condition, so enabling preventive maintenance. This key technology can deliver significantly reduced downtime that might have been caused by blockages or breakages to conveyor chain, paddle attachments or the drive gearbox.
TorqSense has seen widespread adoption in torque monitoring applications across a host of industries, where it is recognised as providing a reliable, accurate and easy-to-implement monitoring solution. Increasingly, these applications are including conveyors, where operators are finding that accurate, non-contact, digital torque monitoring technology has an important role to play in optimising operations and reducing costs.
Sensor Technology can point to a number of applications within coal handling and transportation as well, from the conveyors at the coal face to the bulk unloading conveyors at docksides. Operators around the world are seeing its benefits of reducing running costs and improving asset availability by facilitating proactive rather than reactive maintenance.
19 August 2016
New and developing technologies will be the theme on the stand of one the regular exhibitors at this year’s Sensors & Instrumentation, the exhibition for test, measurement and control engineers, 28-29 September 2016, NEC Birmingham.
Sensor Technology Ltd will be showing extensions to its LoadSense range, an updated version of its ORT 230/240 range and enhancements to its wireless strain gauge amplifier.
The new ORT sensors redefined user expectations for optical rotary torque transducers when they were introduced earlier this year. These torque sensors are designed for duties requiring low torque and/or high bandwidth, and provide precise, dynamic measurement of rotary and static torque from 10mNm to 100Nm and for bandwidths of up to 50 kHz. Their signal processing electronics demonstrate improved resolution, frequency response and faster data handling, yet have reduced power consumption.
Complementing the ORT sensors, Sensor Technology is also introducing new strain gauge amplifiers, which are wireless so offer many benefits in terms of ease of installation, use and reconfiguration.
LoadSense is a strain gauge based stainless steel tension type sensor with the capability of wirelessly transmitting its data (via 2.4 GHz) to a display. Alternatively, it can record data to its inbuilt 32MB memory for subsequent downloading and use/analysis. New this year, the range has been extended up to 30 tonnes.
LoadSense is now found throughout the worlds of manufacturing, automation, handling and test and measurement, but it was originally developed to measure the load on helicopter cargo hooks and transmit information to the pilots wirelessly (a hard wired solution would have required a hole to be drilled in the aircraft’s body, negating its certificate of airworthiness).
The company’s Tony Ingham says: “Much of our business is overseas, but the domestic market remains very important for us as the UK is a leader in so many high tech fields. Sensors & Instrumentation and its predecessor shows have always produced new leads and introductions for us; it’s an event we look forward to every year.”
19 July 2016
If precise mixing is a crucial process variable, viscosity measurement may be the most accurate way to ensure optimum performance. But rotating mixers can lead to very tangled wiring, so here Mark Ingham of Sensor Technology Ltd looks at wireless options.
Mixing is fundamental to the manufacture of many products; in many cases this need not be a precision operation – although over-mixing is a waste of time and energy. However in other cases, mixing is more of an exact science; under-mixing will leave the various component materials unevenly distributed, while over-mixing may change the state of the end product.
One example of this is mixing concrete. If you are building a DIY patio, you can splash some water into a pile of ready mix and working it in with a spade, but if you are building a containment bunker for nuclear waste or the foundations of a skyscraper, quality control shifts to a different paradigm! In the latter case the wet concrete has to be fluid enough to flow into every nook and cranny of the formwork and for no pockets of dry concrete that won’t cure properly.
Another example is mixing ketchup, sauces, mayonnaise, etc. The food industry relies on the fact that consumers can be loyal to a particular brand their whole lives, but are also so fickle that the slightest variation in texture will have them up in arms.
Similarly, drugs and medicines must have the active ingredients precision mixed with the carrier material - the consequence of poor mixing could be life threatening.
And in cosmetics and toiletries, the users have incredibly high expectations. Even something as apparently mundane as paint requires that pigments are well mixed in for an even colour and that the correct consistency is attained for easy application.
There are a number of different technologies available for measuring viscosity, but one of the most popular and widely used is the rotational viscometer, which measures viscosity by monitoring the torque required to rotate a spindle at a constant speed within the fluid. The torque, generally measured by determining the reaction torque on the motor, is proportional to the viscous drag on the spindle, and thus to the viscosity of the fluid.
Significantly, the rotational viscometer can run throughout the mixing process, logging data constantly to provide a log of the change in viscosity over time. This profile can be compared with historic data from earlier mixes to give detailed information that would not be available from final target viscosity readings alone.
However torque can be difficult to measure; in fact traditional measuring technologies introduce as many problems as they solve. Because the spindle is rotating, wires attached to a torque sensor on the shaft would wind up and quickly snap. Approaches using slip rings are available but far from ideal because of costs, set-up time and the inevitable wear and tear.
A wireless technique has been developed using TorqSense rotary torque transducers from Sensor Technology. These do not need a physical connection to the rotating shaft, but instead use a radio frequency (RF) link to both send power to the sensing element on the spindle and to receive torque reading signals back from it.
TorqSense torque sensors use two tiny Surface Acoustic Wave devices or SAWs, made of ceramic piezoelectric material containing frequency resonating combs. These are glued onto the drive shaft at 90 degrees to one another. As the torque increases one comb expands and the other contracts proportionally to the torque being experienced. In effect the combs act as strain gauges but measure changes in resonant frequency.
An RF transmitter/receiver mounted close to the spindle emits radio waves towards the SAWs, and collects them when they are reflected back. The change in frequency of the reflected waves identifies the current torque.
In the rotational viscometer, the TorqSense transducer is mounted between the motor and the paddle. A double bearing eliminates any side loads, while a torque limiting coupling provides protection in the event of the paddle mechanism seizing. With the motor operating at constant speed, the transducer provides an output of torque that changes proportionally to the viscosity during mixing, thus enabling the operator to accurately measure the relative viscosity of the mix.
Where it is important to determine absolute viscosity rather than relative viscosity, the system can be pre-calibrated using specific paddles immersed in fluids with a known viscosity. Water, for example, has a viscosity of 0.001 Pascal seconds at room temperature. By calibrating the viscometer to a known sample, the absolute torque figure can then be derived in the application from the relative torque figure, and the required viscosity then accurately measured.
Using TorqSense rotary torque transducers has simplified the design of these new rotational viscometers while also increasing accuracy, providing a robust and reliable solution in challenging applications where the absolute viscosity of the mix is a critical factor.