As electricity power can only travel efficiently at high voltages, a transformer is necessary to step up the voltage. Once it arrives at its destination, the transformer is used to step down or reduce the voltage so it is suitable for domestic use. This process is achieved by electromagnetic induction using currents flowing through wires coiled in loops to create a magnetic field. All transformers share the same basic design but are customised for certain installations or circuit requirements. There are a wide range of these specialised transformers but they include capacity voltage, polyphase, output, pulse and instrument. Signal or audio transformers are used for amplifiers and microphones whilst audio transformers allow telephone calls. Leakage transformers have been especially adapted for use with arc welding or for high voltage discharge lamps like neon lights. Isolating transformers are used with medical equipment to safeguard the patient. The most common use of transformers is to ensure the successful transmission and distribution of the electricity supply. Not all transformers are large in size, however. There are tiny transformers contained in computers and chargers. They convert the higher voltage of the domestic electricity supply into a much smaller voltage to power these devices.

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